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Rhino Cutaneous Horn In A Sun-Protected Area: A Rare Case With Historical Review

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Rajesh, Pallavi. Rhino Cutaneous Horn In A Sun-Protected Area: A Rare Case With Historical Review. The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2006 Volume 6 Number 2.


Cornu cutaneum or cutaneous horn is a rare clinical presentation resembling an animal horn. The lesion is often seen arising from sun-exposed skin surface. We report a case of Rhino-cutaneous horn which developed from the sun-protected surface of nasal vestibule. The broad based lesion was completely excised and microscopically proved to be non-malignant


Cornu cutaneum or cutaneous horn is a relatively uncommon clinical entity consisting of a compacted hyperkeratosis over a hyperproliferative lesion and it resembles an animal horn1. The base of the lesion may be flat, nodular or crateriform. Cutaneous horn most often arises on the sun-exposed skin surface in elderly men, usually after fifth decade2. The lesion is found on scalp, face, pinna, eyelids, nose, neck, shoulders, hands and penis. The possibility of malignancy at the base of the lesion increases in men when compared with the age-matched women. Various histological variants have been documented at the base of the keratin mound therefore histopathological confirmation is often necessary to rule out benign, premalignant and malignant changes.

Case report

A 32 year old female house wife with fair complexion attended the ENT out patient department with complains of projectile mass from the left nostril (Fig.1) associated with pain and a sense of embarrassment since 8 months duration. There was no history of epistaxis or respiratory obstruction.

Figure 1

Figure 1: Rhino cutaneous horn

The clinical examination showed a hard keratotic conical mass protruding from the left nostril, painful on palpation. On careful anterior rhinoscopy a sessile mass was seen arising from the lateral wall of the vestibule about one cm. from the free margin. No such lesion was detected in the right nostril or other parts of the body. Examination of the neck did not reveal any clinical positive lymph nodes. The mass was clinically diagnosed as Rhino cutaneous horn from a sun-protected area of the vestibule of the left nostril. The lesion was excised (Fig.2) under local anesthesia after infiltrating the surrounding area of the lesion with 1:200,000 adrenline in xylocain with sufficient depth and safety margin. There was a minimal; bleeding and the defect was closed primarily by undermining the margins with 3-0 silk. An anterior nasal dressing with ribbon gauge impregnated with Fusidin(R) (sodium fusidate BP 20mg) ointment was done and a bolster applied. The patient was given an injection of Voltran(R) (diclofanic sodium) 75 mg. I/M and advised to take tablet of Voltran three times a day after meals for a period of two days. The anterior nasal pack was removed after 48 hours and thereafter only Fucidin ointment was applied locally for 5 days. The stitches were removed on day 5. Follow up period was uneventful without signs of recurrence. The histopathological examination showed squamous epithelial cells with keratine debris indicating a benign lesion.

Figure 2

Figure 2: Excised specimen


Rhino cutaneous horn consist of a superficial hyperkeratosis over a hyperproliferative skin lesion resembling an animal horn. But the difference between animal horns is the presence of a central bone which is not seen in cutaneous horns in human beings. The earliest well documented case of cornu cutaneum from London in 1588 is of Mrs. Margaret Gryffith, an elderly Welsh woman. A showman, who advertised it in a pamphlet, exhibited her for money. However, earliest observations on cutaneous horns in humans were described by the London surgeon Everard Home in 17913. Farris from Italy first described the gigantic horn in man as a well documented a case report with adequate histology4. According to a largest study by Yu et al,5 61% of cutaneous horns were derived from benign lesions and 39% were derived from malignant or premalignant epidermal lesions. The important consideration in these cases is not the horn, but the underlying pathology which may be benign (seborrheic keratosis, viral warts, histiocytoma, inverted follicular keratosis, verrucous epidermal nevus, molluscum contagiosum, etc.), premalignant (solar keratosis, arsenical keratosis, Bowen’s disease) or malignant (squamous cell carcinoma, rarely, basal cell carcinoma, metastatic renal carcinoma, granular cell tumor, sebaceous carcinoma or Kaposi’s sarcoma6 Histopathological examination, specially of the base of the lesion7,8is necessary to rule out associated malignancy and full excision and reconstruction whenever required is the treatment of choice.


Cutaneous horn is a rare clinical diagnosis and is frequently seen over the sun-exposed skin surface but is rarely present in the sun-protected site. Although 2/3rd cases are benign the rest are premalingant and malignant may require an aggressive management.

What Is a Cutaneous Horn?


A cutaneous horn is a type of lesion or growth that appears on the skin. It’s made of keratin, which is a protein that makes up the top layer of the skin. The growth may look like a cone or horn, and it can vary in size. The name comes from the growth sometimes resembling an animal’s horn.

This skin condition is more common in older adults, and both men and women can have it. Many cutaneous horns are benign or noncancerous, but they can also be precancerous or cancerous.

Symptoms of a cutaneous horn

A cutaneous horn looks like a growth on the outside of the skin. This is the most common symptom. It can appear as a large bump, cone, spike, or horn. The growth may be the same color as the skin or it may be a different color. The color of the growth can vary and may be:

  • white
  • pink
  • yellow
  • tan
  • brown

Most cutaneous horns are curved, and the curvature can get worse as they grow.

Cutaneous horns can also appear on any part of the body. They are usually seen on the:

  • face
  • hands
  • ears
  • head
  • chest
  • arms

Areas of the body that are exposed more to the sun may be more likely to have these growths.

Cutaneous horn pictures


Causes of a cutaneous horn

The exact cause of a cutaneous horn is often unknown. Exposure to radiation from the sunlight may be one of the causes. Another possible cause is having viral warts caused by human papillomavirus.

It’s estimated that about half of cutaneous horns appear on top of, or because of, skin cancer or precancerous skin lesions. Others may appear on top of, or because of, burn scars or other noncancerous skin conditions.

Older adults, especially ones between the ages of 60 and 70, are at a higher risk of developing cutaneous horns. Both men and women can get these growths, but men are more likely to have cancerous lesions. People with fair or light skin are also at a higher risk of having cutaneous horns.

Cutaneous horns aren’t contagious, so they can’t spread to other people.HEALTHLINE EVENTHealthline Live Town Hall: Mental Health In Focus

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Complications of a cutaneous horn

Pain and inflammation are possible if a cutaneous horn is injured. Cutaneous horns may be a sign of cancer, so it’s important to call or see your doctor when a cutaneous horn first appears.

Symptoms that should trigger a call to your doctor:

  • a new cutaneous horn
  • pain and inflammation from the cutaneous horn or around it
  • redness or bleeding
  • rapid growth
  • hard or thickening skin at the base of the cutaneous horn

Diagnosing a cutaneous horn

To diagnose a cutaneous horn, your doctor may ask for a medical history and do a physical exam. Most cutaneous horns are diagnosed based on their appearance.

In addition, your doctor may do a biopsy. During a biopsy, your doctor will usually remove the entire horn and send it to the lab to be examined under a microscope. That helps them diagnose the growth and determine whether or not any skin cancer is present.

Removing a cutaneous horn

The most common treatment for cutaneous horns is removal. The type of treatment you receive will also depend on if the growth is cancerous or noncancerous. Your recovery time will vary depending on the size of the growth and its type.

Treatment for noncancerous cutaneous horns may include:

  • removing the growth
  • freezing the growth with liquid nitrogen
  • scraping and burning the growth

Treatment for cancerous cutaneous horns may include:

  • removing the growth through surgery
  • scraping and burning the growth
  • using radiation therapy
  • using chemotherapy
  • using topical medicine to stimulate the immune system

Scarring is possible and often happens after removing a cutaneous horn. The size of the growth influences the amount of scarring.

In some cases, the cutaneous horns can reappear or grow back after removal.

Preventing a cutaneous horn

Although there are no clear preventive measures that can stop cutaneous horns, avoiding exposure to the sun and using a high SPF-sunscreen may reduce your risk. Learn more about choosing a sunscreen.


A cutaneous horn isn’t contagious and can’t spread to other people. It’s a skin growth that can resemble a horn, cone, spike, or large bump. Cutaneous horns are more common among older adults and usually appear on parts of the body exposed to the sun.

Last medically reviewed on August 22, 2017

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Medically reviewed by Judith Marcin, M.D. — Written by Lana Bandoim — Updated on August 22, 2017How to Have Your Best Skin in Your 40s, 50s, and 60sA Guide to the Confusing World of Face Acids and Which Ones to UseThe 12 Best Foods for Healthy Skin

6 ringworm treatments

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Treating ringworm

A ringworm rash can be uncomfortable, but it is common and treatable. Early intervention is critical to prevent spreading the infection to others. Here are six simple ways to treat ringworm.

1. Apply a topical antifungal

Most cases of ringworm can be treated at home. Over-the-counter antifungals can kill the fungus and promote healing. Effective medications include miconazole (Cruex), clotrimazole (Desenex) and terbinafine (Lamisil).

After cleaning the rash, apply a thin layer of antifungal medication to the affected area 2 to 3 times per day or as directed by the package. Spread the treatment beyond the border of the rash by a couple of centimeters and allow the medication to absorb into your skin.

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2. Let it breathe

It may seem logical to keep ringworm covered with a bandage to prevent spreading the infection. However, bandaging the rash locks in moisture and slows the healing process.

Instead, wear comfortable, breathable clothes to speed healing and avoid spreading the rash to other people. This includes loose-fitting, long-sleeve shirts and pants.

3. Wash bedding daily

Because ringworm is highly contagious, you should wash your sheets daily to get rid of the infection faster. Fungal spores can transfer to your sheets and comforter. If you sleep on the same sheets night after night, it can take longer for ringworm to heal, and the infection can spread to other parts of your body. Contaminated bedding can also infect your partner.

Use hot water and detergent when washing bedding and any infected clothes. Hot water alone can kill the fungus. As an extra precaution, add borax or bleach to your wash along with regular laundry detergent.

Borax and bleach can be purchased from a grocery store, and they also kill fungal spores. Follow the directions on the package.

Shop for borax and bleach online.

4. Change wet underwear and socks

If ringworm develops on your feet or groin area, keep these areas dry. If you sweat a lot during the day, bathe with an antifungal cleansing bar and then reapply your antifungal powder or lotion. Make sure the area is completely dry before putting on a new pair of underwear or socks.

5. Use an antifungal shampoo

Sometimes, ringworm develops on the scalp. Symptoms of a scalp infection include severe itching, patches of hair loss, scalp boils, and severe dandruff. If you have ringworm on your scalp, wash your hair with an over-the-counter medicated antifungal shampoo.

These shampoos kill bacteria and fungus on the scalp and stop inflammation. You can purchase them from a grocery store or drugstore. Look for shampoos with antifungal active ingredients, such as ketoconazole, selenium sulfide, and pyrithione zinc. Use shampoos according to the directions on the package.

However, be aware that scalp fungus is nearly impossible to eliminate without oral medications.

Shop for medicated antifungal shampoo online.

6. Take a prescription antifungal

Continue treatment with an antifungal powder, cream, or shampoo until the rash completely disappears. The infection may return if you stop treatment too soon. See a doctor if the rash doesn’t go away after two weeks of home treatment. A ringworm infection that doesn’t improve or that spreads may require a prescription-strength topical cream or oral antifungal medication.

Make an appointment with your primary care doctor or see a dermatologist. Take the prescription medication as directed by your doctor. You may have to take the prescription for weeks to months, depending on the severity of the infection.

The takeaway

Don’t ignore ringworm. Although it’s a common skin infection, quick action is necessary to prevent spreading the fungus. You should also make sure you know how to prevent future infections. For example:

  • Don’t share personal care items, such as towels, clothes, and brushes, with others.
  • Wash your hands often.
  • Learn how to recognize ringworm in people and animals.

Last medically reviewed on March 7, 2019

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FEEDBACK:Medically reviewed by Sarah Taylor, M.D., FAAD — Written by Valencia Higuera — Updated on March 7, 2019

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Are You a Hot Sleeper? Here’s What You Need to Know

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You toss. You turn.

You wake up soaked in sweat, and you know you’re in for another fun night of hot sleep.

Research showed that night sweats, otherwise known as being a “hot sleeper,” can affect anywhere from 10% to 41%Trusted Source of people.

In other words, science hasn’t quite figured out how common it is be a hot sleeper.

But it’s safe to say that feeling hot at night isn’t abnormal — although if you’re regularly sweating through PJs and sheets when you sleep, there could be an underlying cause.

Want to know all the reasons you seem to be overheating when you sleep?

Longing for some tried and tested remedies to keep yourself cool and sweat-free?

Read on for all the answers to your burning questions.

Why it happens

In the evening, when your eyes see that it’s dark, a hormone called melatonin is released, according to a small 2001 study.

As well as triggering feelings of tiredness, this causes your body temperature to begin dropping, according to a 2012 research review.

When you finally nod off, your body will continue decreasing its temperature —around 2°F (-17°C) in total —to help promote a good night’s sleep.

And when it’s time to wake, the temperature will begin rising again to its usual level, according to

Sweating happens to cool your body’s core temperature when it rises above a certain point.

So, what makes your internal temperature rise at night?

Well, there are some obvious causes and some not so obvious ones.

Surprising causes of hot sleep

The simplest cause is that the temp is hot in your bedroom or you’re using thick bedding or mattresses that are known to retain heat. (Think memory foam designs.)

Of course, having another person or pets in the bed can increase the heat in the room, too.

But night sweats can also have nothing to do with external temperatures and more to do with internal processes.

For example, the hormonal changes that come with menopause or hyperthyroidism can affect the regulatory system that causes a dip in temperature when you’re sleeping.

Metabolism can also play a role.

The likes of eating and exercising too close to your bedtime can amp up your body’s metabolic rate. This disrupts temperature control and sleep quality.

According to the National Health Service, overheating at night can even be caused by certain medications, like some pain relievers and antidepressants.

Again, this can happen as a result of disturbances to your body’s temperature regulation system.

Some conditions, such as anxiety and hyperhidrosis, actually make your sweat glands more responsive. This can potentially lead to nighttime sweatiness.

As you can see, there are many, many potential causes of night sweats.

In some cases, sweating may be a symptom of a more serious condition.

Sleep apnea is one of them —in fact, one 2013 study found that people with sleep apnea were three times more likely to report night sweats than the general adult population. A 2020 research review showed that excessive sweating when sleeping is linked to:

However, you’re likely to have other symptoms as well.

How to cool down

Thankfully, there are plenty of ways to help keep yourself cool at night. Most involve attempting to prevent the problem in the first place.

Your room

Firstly, take a look at your bedroom. Do you usually keep the curtains wide open, letting the sun stream in?

While letting sunlight in is a normal way to start your day, keeping the curtains shut or blinds down can help keep the room cool, according to the Sleep Foundation. Blackout curtains are particularly great for lowering indoor temperatures.

Next up: your bed. Everything from your mattress to your pillows can have an effect on your body temperature. When it comes to sheets and pillowcases, opt for breathable fabrics like:

  • linen
  • cotton
  • bamboo

(You can even freeze your pillowcases during the day for an extra dose of cold.)

For mattresses, latex is a good option for air circulation. Memory foam, on the other hand, tends to retain heat. If you have a memory foam mattress, don’t despair — you can easily buy cooling pads or sheets to go on top.

AC is another obvious way to keep your bedroom on the cool side. Setting your thermostat 60 to 67°F (16 to 19°C) is thought to be best for most people, with 65°F (18°C) being the ideal temperature.

Finally, there’s the almighty fan. Although some people find it impossible to sleep with a fan blasting in their ears, others find the noise soothing.

Even if you can’t sleep, you can put it on during the day for improved air circulation.

Your routine

What you do before you nod off can have an impact on your internal body temperature.

While exercising too close to bedtime can cause your temperature to rise, taking a hot bath or shower can have the opposite effect.

When you get out, that body temperature will begin to dip, giving you a good chance of a restful night.

Ready to jump into bed? Consider what you’re wearing.

Sleeping naked can help your body temperature remain on the low side. If you prefer to be clothed, choose lightweight, breathable fibers like cotton.

Of course, if your night sweats are the result of an underlying health condition, you may need medical help. Your doctor can:

  • prescribe medications
  • advise you of dietary changes that may help
  • alter any existing medication dosages if needed

Products to try

Plenty of people have tried all kinds of things in a bid to cool down at night.

While some hacks may or may not work for you, there are a few products that seem to be universally liked by hot sleepers.

If you’re looking for new bedding, try these bed sheets —they’re designed to wick moisture away from your skin.

There are even cooling blankets that are designed to absorb body heat and reduce the chance of sweat.

Or experiment with a cooling gel pillow with shredded foam for improved airflow.

If you prefer a device that actively makes the room feel cooler, you can opt for a simple (yet powerful) bedside fan or a handily compact AC unit with multiple modes for all your needs.

The bottom line

Although night sweats are less than ideal, they’re your body’s nifty way of cooling itself down.

While there are endless amounts of cooling products to try, it’s worth considering why you’re feeling overly hot at night. It could be something as simple as your diet or exercise routine, or it could be a symptom of a more complex condition.

If you’re worried, contact your doctor for advice.

Last medically reviewed on May 21, 2021

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Medically reviewed by Raj Dasgupta, MD — Written by Lauren Sharkey on May 21, 2021

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10 Healthiest Chinese Food Takeout Options

Chinese takeout is delicious but not always the healthiest choice, as it’s typically loaded with salt, sugar, oil, and processed additives.

Luckily, there are some healthier takeout options if you’re craving Chinese food.

Here are the 10 healthiest Chinese takeout options, along with tips to choose healthier entrées, side items, and sauces.

Person eating steamed dumpling with chopsticks
Addictive Creatives/Stocksy United

1. Egg foo young

Egg foo young is a Chinese omelet made with eggs and chopped vegetables. It may also contain meat, such as beef, pork, chicken, or shrimp.

Because it’s made with eggs, it’s rich in protein, containing 106 calories and 10 grams of protein in a single patty (86 grams) (1Trusted Source).

Egg foo young also contains vegetables like onions, carrots, and peas, which increase the fiber and nutrient content of the dish.

To make it even healthier, inquire whether your egg foo young can be lightly fried instead of deep fried, and avoid the salty brown sauce that’s often served with it.

2. Steamed dumplings

Chinese dumplings are pockets of dough filled with seasoned meat and vegetables, usually pork and cabbage.

They are often fried, but you can choose steamed dumplings to cut down on calories and fat. One medium steamed dumpling is only 40 calories (2Trusted Source).

Although the soy-sauce-based dipping sauce is low in calories, it’s high in sodium, so try to limit how much sauce you use if you are salt-sensitive.

3. Hot and sour soup or egg drop soup

Hot and sour soup is made with mushrooms, bamboo shoots, eggs, and ginger in chicken broth. It also contains vinegar and spices, which add the hot and sour components to the dish.

On the other hand, egg drop soup is made simply with ribbons of cooked egg in chicken broth. However, takeout versions may be highly processed and contain additives.

Both soups are low in calories — containing only 65–90 calories per 1 cup (240 mL) serving — and you can make them even healthier by avoiding the fried lo mein noodles that are often offered as a topping (3Trusted Source4Trusted Source).

4. Moo goo gai pan

Moo goo gai pan is a lightly sauced chicken and vegetable stir-fry containing mushrooms, broccoli, carrots, and water chestnuts.

Because it’s full of vegetables and lean chicken, it’s relatively low in calories. However, the chicken provides plenty of protein, making it a filling dish. One cup (216 grams) contains only 160 calories while offering 15 grams of protein (5Trusted Source).

Be sure to ask for light sauce, as the sauce is likely to be high in salt and sugar.

5. Beef and broccoli

Beef and broccoli is a simple dish of stir-fried beef and broccoli in a light sauce.

It’s a relatively healthy dish, low in carbs, and high in protein. However, it’s often made with inexpensive, fatty cuts of beef. One cup (217 grams) contains 336 calories, 23 grams of fat, and 23 grams of protein (6Trusted Source).

Like moo goo gai pan, its sauce may be high in salt and sugar, so you should opt for light sauce.

6. Chop suey

Chop suey is another stir-fry dish made from meat, eggs, and thinly sliced vegetables in a light sauce. It’s often made with pork.

Like other stir-fries, it’s a healthier choice because it’s made from a protein source and vegetables. One cup of pork chop suey with no noodles contains 216 calories and provides 23 grams of protein (7Trusted Source).

However, you should choose light sauce to further limit the salt and sugar content.

7. Chicken and broccoli

Chicken and broccoli is similar to beef and broccoli, consisting of chicken and broccoli stir-fried in a light sauce.

However, it’s a leaner option than beef and broccoli that still offers plenty of protein. One cup (153 grams) provides 13 grams of protein and only 145 calories (8Trusted Source).

If possible, choose to go easy on the sauce to limit the sodium, sugar, and calories in this dish.

8. Baked salmon

Many Chinese restaurants offer a baked salmon option, which is a great choice.

Baked salmon is high in protein, rich in healthy omega-3 fats, and contains no carbs. A 3-ounce (85-gram) portion cooked with butter contains 156 calories, 21 grams of protein, and 7 grams of fat (9Trusted Source).

Paired with a side of steamed vegetables, baked salmon is a perfect entrée for low carb or keto dieters.

9. Happy family

Happy family, or triple delight, is a stir-fry made from meat, such as chicken or pork, seafood, and vegetables.

It’s served in a thick brown sauce, usually over rice. Although its exact nutrition info is not available, happy family is high in protein because it contains both meat and seafood, while the vegetables add fiber.

Like other stir-fries, you should choose light sauce to limit the added calories, fat, sugar, and salt.

10. Buddha’s delight

Buddha’s delight is a great option for vegans and vegetarians. It’s a stir-fry made with tofu and steamed vegetables like bok choy, cabbage, and broccoli in a light, savory sauce.

Because it’s completely plant-based, it contains some fiber, as well as protein from the tofu. One cup (217 grams) provides 193 calories and contains 3 grams of fiber and 9 grams of protein (10Trusted Source).

Additionally, tofu is one of the few complete proteins available to vegans and vegetarians, meaning it contains all nine of the essential amino acids your body needs to build new proteins (11Trusted Source).

Choosing a healthy entrée

When trying to order healthier Chinese takeout foods, it’s important to be aware of the cooking method that’s used.

Many Chinese takeout entrées are battered and deep fried, and you should avoid these, as they are high in added fat, starch, and calories.

Others may be water-velveted, or coated in cornstarch, to provide the smooth, velvety texture of the meat in many stir-fries. Water-velveting is healthier than deep frying but still adds extra starchy carbs and calories.

Ideally, you should choose entrées that are baked, steamed, boiled, or sautéed in a small amount of oil.

Additionally, you should consider serving size. The typical serving size for a Chinese takeout entrée — especially stir-fries — is 1 cup (200–240 grams). Because Chinese takeout often comes in large portions, a single order could contain up to four servings.

To limit calories, make sure you measure out an appropriate portion size and save the rest for other meals.


You should try to choose entrées that are baked, steamed, boiled, or sautéed. Water-velveting adds some carbs and calories, while deep-fried entrées are much higher in fat, carbs, and calories.

Healthiest side items

Another important consideration when choosing healthier Chinese takeout is your side item.

Typical Chinese takeout sides like fried rice, lo mein noodles, crab rangoon, and egg rolls are high in calories, fat, and carbs.

Healthier choices include steamed brown rice, sautéed or steamed vegetables, spring rolls, or soups like egg drop soup or hot and sour soup.


Healthy Chinese takeout sides include steamed brown rice, sautéed or steamed vegetables, spring rolls, or soups.

Healthiest sauces

Most Chinese takeout dishes are also served in some kind of sauce. Sauces can be a significant source of calories, fat, sugar, and salt in Chinese dishes — even if it doesn’t seem like there’s much sauce.

As a general rule of thumb, thicker and stickier sauces, such as General Tso’s, are higher in sugar and calories, while thinner sauces are lower in calories unless they are very oily.

Order your dish with light sauce or sauce on the side so you can control how much is added to your food.


Sauces can be a huge source of calories from sugar, fat, and salt. Try to choose light sauces or ask for the sauce on the side.

A note about MSG

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a controversial additive that’s found in many Chinese takeout dishes. It’s a concentrated source of salty and savory umami flavor and has a flavor profile reminiscent of soy sauce (12Trusted Source).

However, MSG has long been the subject of scientific controversy. Some people claim that it causes headaches, asthma, and weight gain, but there’s little evidence to support these claims (13Trusted Source14Trusted Source15Trusted Source).

Recent research has found that MSG presents little risk of harm to most people when consumed in moderate amounts (16Trusted Source).

Regardless, if you’re concerned about MSG in your food, be sure to ask your local Chinese restaurant if they use it. In light of the controversy surrounding the substance, some Chinese restaurants have chosen to stop using the additive.


MSG is a common but controversial ingredient in many Chinese takeout dishes. Still, this additive is safe to consume in normal amounts.

The bottom line

Although many Chinese takeout options are unhealthy, there are healthy choices as well.

Stir-fries are a great option because they contain protein from meat or tofu, as well as vegetables, which add fiber and nutrients.

You should also choose healthier cooking options and side dishes, and limit the amount of sauce on your food and your portion size.

With this guide, it’s easy to choose a healthier Chinese takeout option.

Last medically reviewed on March 16, 2020FEEDBACK:

Written by SaVanna Shoemaker, MS, RDN, LD on March 16, 2020 — Medically reviewed by Adrienne Seitz, MS, RD, LDNMediterranean Diet 101: A Meal Plan and Beginner’s GuideThe Best Indian Diet Plan for Weight LossThe Ketogenic Diet: A Detailed Beginner’s Guide to KetoVegetarian Diets May Be Even Better for Us Than We ThoughtThe Atkins Diet: Everything You Need to Know

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Fibroadenoma Removal Surgery and Recovery

Getty Images/Courtney Hale

fibroadenoma is a type of non-cancerous (benign) tumor that can develop in breast tissue. It contains a combination of connective and glandular tissues.

While such lumps aren’t cancerous, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove them if you have a family history of breast cancer, or if the lump is large, painful, or interferes with your quality of life.

Learn what fibroadenoma removal entails, and what you can expect during the recovery process and beyond.

What’s the procedure like for a fibroadenoma removal surgery?

While most fibroadenomas don’t require removal, surgery may be recommended if your breast lump is large or painful. A personal or family history of breast cancer may also be a consideration in some cases.

A fibroadenoma may be removed via two different methods, depending on the size. The first is a traditional excision biopsy for large lumps, which removes the entire lump, along with some surrounding tissue.


Also called a lumpectomy, an excision biopsy takes about an hour to complete. After removal, your doctor will use either dissolvable or traditional stitches to seal the wound.

This procedure is considered a major surgery that’s performed under general anesthesia. However, most people don’t require an overnight hospital stay, and may go home the same day of their surgery.

Before a lumpectomy, your doctor will assess your overall health history to determine possible risks. You’ll also need to stop taking blood-thinning medications and supplements prior to your procedure.

Vacuum-assisted excision biopsy

Smaller fibroadenomas may be removed with a procedure called a vacuum-assisted excision biopsy. This is an outpatient procedure that involves smaller incisions. The doctor then collects the fibroadenomas via a vacuum device, using an ultrasound to guide them.

Since this type of procedure isn’t as invasive, a healthcare professional will use a local anesthetic instead of general anesthesia. Stitches also aren’t required.


Another option for smaller fibroadenomas is a freezing technique called cryoablation. Rather than removing the lump, an incision is made and a gas is used to destroy fibroadenoma tissues.

What’s the recovery like for a fibroadenoma removal surgery?

The exact timeline for recovery from this surgery depends on how large the fibroadenoma is, as well as which removal method is used.

Lumpectomy recovery

If your surgeon used traditional stitches, you’ll need to see them for removal about 1 week after your surgery. Depending on the extent of your surgery, you may consider taking time off work. You may need to take sponge baths until your stitches have been removed.

You may experience pain and discomfort for several days after a lumpectomy. Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol). In all, it can take up to a month to heal from this surgery.

Vacuum-assisted excision biopsy recovery

For a vacuum-assisted excision biopsy, you may experience pain and bruising for a few days. However, you should be able to resume your normal activities once you feel comfortable.

This type of removal process is less likely to affect the shape of your breast.

What are the potential complications of a fibroadenoma removal?

Since a lumpectomy is considered a major surgery, it’s important to understand the risks before electing to have this procedure. Call your doctor if you experience the following after surgery:

  • increased pain
  • bleeding that won’t stop
  • signs of an infection, such as swelling and discharge
  • poor wound healing

This type of surgery may also increase the risk for heart attack and stroke.

Depending on the size and location of the fibroadenoma, you may experience scarring after removal. Surgery may also impact the overall texture and shape of the affected breast, too. While not considered life-threatening complications, you still may wish to discuss these risks with your doctor.

In some cases, fibroadenoma removal could impact future mammograms. That’s because the possible scarring and breast structure changes can make such imaging tests more difficult to read.

To remove or not to remove?

If a biopsy of a lump on your breast is determined to be a fibroadenoma, this doesn’t automatically mean it needs to be removed. Your doctor may base their recommendation on the following factors:

  • whether the lump is growing or changing, based on physical exams and imaging results
  • whether the lump is painful or causes discomfort
  • whether the lump has changed the overall shape of your breast
  • your family history of breast cancer
  • your age

Simple fibroadenomas

A simplefibroadenoma is one that has a uniform shape under microscopic examination, and is usually between 1 and 3 centimeters in size. This type of lump rarely becomes cancerous. Also, some simple fibroadenomas may shrink naturally after menopause.

For simple fibroadenomas that aren’t causing any discomfort, your doctor may recommend a wait-and-see approach. This may also help prevent possible scarring and tissue damage from removal surgery.

Simple fibroadenomas may also grow larger during adolescence and pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may also increase their size. However, once you get past these life stages, the lumps will likely decrease in size once more.

Complex fibroadenomas

A complex fibroadenoma, on the other hand, may slightly increase your risk for breast cancer in the future. If you have a personal or family history of breast cancer, your doctor may recommend removing this type of lump.

Some doctors also suggest removing lumps that are 2 to 3 cm or larger.

Consult with your doctor

To help make your decision, ask your doctor what type of fibroadenoma you have, as well as your overall risk for developing breast cancer. Ask them whether the benefits of removal surgery outweigh the risks.

If you decide on a wait-and-see approach, your doctor may recommend follow-up imaging tests every 6 to 24 months. This will help to make sure the fibroadenoma hasn’t significantly changed.



A diagnosis of a lump in the breast can be concerning, but a fibroadenoma isn’t cancerous. Depending on the size of the lump, you may not have to remove it right away. In some cases, the lump will shrink after menopause.

However, a doctor may recommend a fibroadenoma removal if the lump is large, or if you have a family history of breast cancer. Depending on the size, this may involve a traditional lumpectomy surgery, or perhaps a less invasive alternative.

Talk with a healthcare professional about all your options to treat fibroadenoma. If you’ve already had a removal procedure done, call your doctor if you’re experiencing any complications or changes to your breast.

Last medically reviewed on May 21, 2021

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Medically reviewed by Jenneh Rishe, RN — Written by Kristeen Cherney on May 21, 2021

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Expert Tips for Getting Sun-Bleached Hair Safely This Summer

Guille Faingold/Stocksy United

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Hoping to harness the power of the sun for some sun-kissed locks this summer? You totally can! But before you bid your colorist adieu, find out just how much lighter you can expect to go with the sun and how to make it happen.

Myth vs. fact

Rumor has it that sitting out in the sun for long periods of time can bleach your hair.

Fun fact: It’s true! (Well, to a certain extent.)

The sun might not give you the perfectly lived-in balayage you pay big bucks for at the salon, but you can score a lighter hue by sitting in the sun.

How light your hair becomes, however, depends on your current color and whether you enlist extra help from lemon juice (which does indeed work!) or a hair lightening product (more on those in a minute).

The sun can lighten hair of any shade, but people with lighter hair tend to get the best results.

If you have dark hair, the lightening won’t be as dramatic. Depending on your undertones — which usually lean orange in brunette hair — you’re not likely to get the soft-highlights effect you see in Roxy ads.

How it works

It comes down to how the sun affects melanin, which is the pigment that gives hair and skin color, says Dr. Annie Gonzalez, a board certified dermatologist at Riverchase Dermatology.

“Sun bleaches out the melanin in hair, which is what causes it to become lighter,” says Gonzalez.

“It might seem strange that the sun lightens hair but tans skin. This is because skin is alive and hair is dead. The ultraviolet rays in sunlight oxidize the hair, turning it into a compound that is colorless.”

Cool, right? Just keep in mind that while this sun-induced lightening job may not cost you money, your hair could still end up paying the price.

“While the melanin in your hair takes abuse from the sun, the sun also destroys other proteins in the hair, making it less manageable,” Gonzalez explains.

How to get sun-bleached hair

If you spend hours a day in the sun, it’ll eventually work its magic and lighten your hair. But this could take an entire summer of all-day sun exposure to achieve and potentially lead to sunspots and a higher risk of skin cancer in the process.

A note on sun safety

Remember: Always wear sunscreen when you’re outside – according to the Skin Cancer Foundation, 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer by the time they’re 70, making it the most common form of cancer in the U.S.

Not sure how much sunscreen you need? Most experts recommend starting with an ounce of sunscreen – about the size of a typical shot glass – which should cover most of your body, as well as reapplying every two hours.

For optimal results without a summer-long skin fry, you’ll need to help things along. But keep in mind that there are other summer staples that can also have a lightening effect on your hair.

“Saltwater and chlorine are also culprits for lightening,” Gonzalez says. “They alter the natural keratin in your hair, resulting in lighter shades.”

If frolicking in the ocean or a pool every day isn’t an option or you don’t want to leave it to chance, a salt spray or some lemon juice can help things along.

Before we get to product picks and our DIY remedies for lightening hair with sun, it’s worth mentioning that all of these things that can lighten your hair can also dry it out in the process.

Double whammy: Off-the-shelf hair products that help you achieve that sun-lightened look can contain harsh chemicals that can do a real number on your hair.

If you prefer to use a store-bought product to help the sun lighten your hair, steer clear of those that contain hydrogen peroxide.

Some lightening sprays available online include:

To make your own sun lightening spray, you can use lemon or salt. Though they’re natural lighteners, lemon juice is acidic and can burn hair if you’re not careful, and salt can be very drying. Less is definitely more, so proceed with caution.

Don’t forget to apply sunscreen to your face and other exposed skin!

With lemon juice

  • Mix two parts warm water and one part juice from lemons in a clean spray bottle.
  • Wet all your hair or just the parts you want lightened.
  • Spray the lemon mixture onto your wet hair.
  • Sit in the sun for 1–2 hours to activate the lemon juice.
  • Rinse thoroughly and condition hair.

With salt spray

  • Dissolve a tablespoon of salt in half a cup of warm water and pour into a clean spray bottle.
  • Spray the salt solution over all your hair or the parts you want lightened until saturated.
  • Sit in the sun for 10–15 minutes.
  • Rinse thoroughly and condition hair.

The bottom line

It’s absolutely true that the sun can lighten your hair, but you may need to take some extra steps to help it along. Keep in mind that the sun and other natural hair lightening ingredients can be unpredictable and damaging. It’s a good idea to invest in a good conditioner and sunscreen before starting your quest for beachy hair.

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